Severe bread shortages loom for Syria as fresh U.S. sanctions grip

By Maha El Dahan and Ellen Francis

DUBAI/BEIRUT (Reuters) – Syria could deal with severe bread shortages for the initially time given that the start off of the war, an additional challenge for President Bashar al-Assad as he grapples with an economic meltdown and fresh U.S. sanctions, a U.N. formal, activists and farmers stated.

Any key disruptions to Syria’s bread subsidy procedure could undermine the federal government and threaten a population highly dependent on wheat as rampant inflation drives up food items selling prices.

“There is currently some proof of men and women chopping out meals,” mentioned Mike Robson, the U.N. Foods and Agriculture Organization’s Syria consultant.

“…If the forex proceeds below stress, imports will be hard to get hold of and the months major up to the 2021 wheat harvest may see real shortages.”

Syria’s financial state is collapsing under the weight of its elaborate, multi-sided conflict, now in its tenth year, and a economical disaster in neighbouring Lebanon, choking off a critical resource of dollars.

Soaring selling prices have designed daily life harder for Syrians ravaged by a war that has killed hundreds of countless numbers and displaced thousands and thousands.

In the earlier six months by yourself, the number of “meals insecure” persons in Syria is estimated to have risen from 7.9 million to 9.3 million, in accordance to Earth Meals Programme information.

“My 50,000 pound (every month) wage ($21 on the informal marketplace) is barely sufficient for a couple days and I am dwelling on debt. Individuals are promoting their furniture… In our lives this has by no means took place,” claimed condition employee Yara.

The United States in June imposed its most sweeping sanctions on Syria but. Washington says the Caesar Act excludes humanitarian help and aims to maintain Assad and his authorities accountable for war crimes.

Syrian authorities blame Western sanctions for widespread hardship amid normal citizens.

The Syrian pound, which held continuous at all-around 500 to the greenback for various many years, went into absolutely free drop previous 12 months, hitting a reduced of 3,000 in June, in anticipation of fresh sanctions.

That forex fall is hindering Assad’s programs for getting up all of this year’s wheat to make up for a shortfall in imports that is drawing down on strategic reserves. 

Prior to the war, Syria could boast much more than a calendar year of wheat reserves.

The governing administration declined to answer questions on the current sizing of reserves and wheat procurement. FAO’s Robson stated he did not have information.

Abdullah, a confectionary trader from Damascus, has never ever observed poverty on this scale.

“We had generally been self-sufficient. Why we have attained this place in which even a loaf will before long become a aspiration, I definitely never know,” he instructed Reuters in a textual content.


Assad has regained regulate of a lot of the nation from rebels, with backing from Russia and Iran. But the principal wheat regions continue to be in the palms of Kurdish-led fighters who seized broad territory from Islamic Point out.

Syria has had significantly lessen output considering the fact that the conflict erupted. It made use of to deliver 4 million tonnes in a superior year and was able to export 1.5 million tonnes.

This year, Syria is believed by the FAO to have manufactured among 2.1 million and 2.4 million tonnes. The authorities expects to have manufactured 2.8 million tonnes.

Need throughout the state is all-around 4 million tonnes, leaving a shortfall to fill from abroad.

But global import tenders executed by the state’s major grain consumer, Hoboob, have consistently failed due to the fact past yr. The authorities declined to remark on how numerous offers it managed to conclude.

Whilst foods is not restricted by Western sanctions, banking limits and asset freezes have manufactured it hard for most trading houses to do organization with Syria.

With significant grain traders out of the equation, the govt relied on businessmen to conclude transactions to sustain the bread subsidies.

“They import quantities to Lebanon and then get it to Syria by land unless of course it is Russia offering direct shipments, federal government to authorities, then they can provide to (the port of) Latakia,” explained Ayman Abdel Nour, a U.S.-primarily based political analyst.

“Now that window has shut with the troubles in Lebanon.”

Reuters facts displays that since June 2019, Hoboob has issued at the very least 10 international tenders for amongst 100,000 and 200,000 tonnes of wheat, failing to report success for most.

Youssef Kassem, the head of Hoboob, has been quoted by media as stating that 1.2 million tonnes of Russian wheat imports were contracted through 2019 amounting to $310 million. Reuters could not independently validate that info. 

Hoboob experimented with to barter some of Syria’s durum wheat, made use of in building pasta, for delicate bread-creating wheat twice in September 2019, with no end result announced.

When bread traces commenced to get extended in govt-held locations close to March, Russia was urged to deliver the full amount of the 100,000 tonnes of wheat it experienced promised as humanitarian aid because 2019.

“Maybe for the initial time because the start off of the Syrian rebellion, you essentially had a lack of subsidised bread in ovens and that led to the improvement of a thriving black sector,” Elizabeth Tsurkov, Fellow at the U.S.-based Foreign Coverage Investigation Institute feel tank and a Syria specialist, stated.

Russia, the world’s major wheat exporter, has been a steady provider of wheat to Syria but the dimensions of its wheat support has not satisfied demand from customers.

Russian customs information does not display provides to Syria, and the dimensions of genuine provides differs wildly.

“The materials are heading on. There are having said that, difficulties with the payment and availability of vessels all set to supply to this desired destination,” a Russian market source told Reuters.

The source believed only about 150,000 tonnes of commercial wheat had arrived at Syria between July 2019 and Could 2020.


The governing administration blamed bread traces on technicalities and with the start of its wheat obtaining period in June announced it would invest in each single grain of its regional crop.

By mid-June, Hoboob explained it had so far procured close to 212,000 tonnes. FAO estimates that about 700,000 tonnes of the whole crop lie in governing administration-controlled territory this calendar year.

But the 3 provinces which account for about 70 % of manufacturing lie typically in the arms of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), led by the Kurdish YPG militia.

The govt has historically lured farmers to promote their crop by paying a greater rate than its rivals, even as the wheat remained in regions outside its control.

This 12 months, with the collapse of the pound, it has upped its price from the 225 lbs a kilo introduced at the commencing of the period to 425 kilos.

But facing a forex crash and in dread of a ripple influence from Caesar sanctions on the financial state of the locations they management, the Kurdish-led authority not only lifted its regional wheat acquiring selling price but also pegged it to the heading price of the greenback, pledging to pay 17 U.S. cents a kilo no make any difference how considerably the pound slips.

Salman Barodo, head of the region’s economic system and agriculture board, stated so far 400,000 tonnes had been bought and warned in opposition to any makes an attempt to smuggle the crop outwards.

The Kurdish-led authority, that operates the SDF area, is aiming to stockpile 18 months’ truly worth of provide and only open up product sales to government territories in the scenario of a surplus.

(Reporting By Maha El Dahan in Dubai and Ellen Francis in Beirut added reporting by Suleiman Al Khalidi in Amman and Polina Devitt in Moscow Modifying by Michael Georgy and Nick Macfie)

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